Transport is one of the most important spheres in the economy of any state. The transport system provides industrial links and is an indicator of the state of world trade. In today’s difficult economic conditions, a trend has emerged for complex logistics solutions and cooperation with professional operators who are able to take on the solution of all cargo transportation problems.
International logistics: figures and facts
Due to the crisis in the global economy, some countries plunged into deep stagnation, while others, on the contrary, reached a new level of development. For example, in the United States, the volume of transatlantic traffic has dropped significantly. Asian companies are actively exploring this market segment, especially from China, whose powerful economy was one of the first to cross the crisis line. Changes have taken place in every sector of the international logistics market. Each type of transportation reacts in its own way to outside influences.
International rail freight
The popularity of rail transport is explained by favorable tariffs, low transportation costs at the rate of 1 ton per 1 km and the possibility of using multimodal schemes (for example, cargo is delivered by sea and then transferred to a rail container). The total length of railways in the world is 1.2 million km. Of these, 240 thousand km run through the United States and 90 thousand km – Canada. In Russia, the figure is less – 86 thousand km. At the same time, the density of the network is high only in the European part of the country. In Siberia, only the Trans-Siberian Railway is actually used. The absolute leaders among cargoes are coal and construction materials. For owners of small consignments of goods, railroad transportation remains unprofitable: delivery from door to door is impossible, it is difficult to plan due to long terms, it is necessary to bear the costs of loading and unloading when using multimodal schemes.
International sea freight.
This is the cheapest type of transport. It provides an average of 75% of traffic between states. The leaders of the world merchant fleet are Japan, Greece, Cyprus, China, USA. The so-called cheap flag ships belonging to Liberia, Panama, International sea freight.
This is the cheapest type of transport. It provides an average of 75% of traffic between states. The leaders of the world merchant fleet are Japan, Greece, Cyprus, China, USA. The so-called cheap-flagged vessels belonging to Liberia, Panama and Singapore are actively used. The cost of transportation in these countries is three times lower than on European ships, including due to tax incentives. Most often, oil and oil products are transported along international sea trade routes. Large cargo flows form in the Persian Gulf towards Europe, Japan and the USA. As for Russia, in our country, sea transportation is used mainly for export. The largest port is considered Novorossiysk, which ranks third in the world in terms of cargo transshipment. Due to the growth in the flow of goods from Southeast Asia, the transshipment capacity of Russian ports will grow in the coming years.
Most developed where there is a dense network of airlines. The most significant fleet of ships is in the USA, Canada, France, Germany, Australia. The cargo turnover scheme unites over 1,000 airports around the world. Nevertheless, the share of air transportation accounts for a very small part of cargo – around the world no more than 1–2%. This is due to the high cost of shipping and a large number of restrictions. Air transport is used mainly for the transportation of perishable and unique goods. After all, its indisputable advantage is speed. Aircraft are the only way to move cargo quickly over long distances.
The total length of the world’s road network exceeds 23 million km. A third of the roads are concentrated in North America, a quarter in Western Europe. Transcontinental highways play a key role. These are, for example, the highway across the Sahara Desert in Africa, the road from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean across the entire United States, the Pan American Highway connecting North and South America, and a number of others.
International road transport is the most flexible. They allow you to deliver cargo to any point where there is a road. Cars are successfully combined with other types of transport. Meanwhile, within Russia, the car remains a short-range transport. According to statistics, the average transportation distance of 1 ton is less than 50 km. This is mainly delivery from seaports or railway stations. It is unprofitable to transport over long distances due to high costs and limited cargo space.
The type of transport largely influences the cost of cargo delivery. Competition exists not only between spheres, but also between specific firms. Therefore, the tariff system used by carriers is very flexible. And it allows you to approach each client individually. Tariff rates include specific characteristics of the cargo and reflect the general interest of states in maintaining a specific cargo flow.
Analysts believe that the road transport market will grow in 2019. In Russia, road freight transport accounts for 2/3 of all traffic. Growth is projected at 3.5% per annum. Interestingly, there is a reorientation of freight flows: the exchange of goods with the EU has dropped sharply, while with China it has grown (largely due to Internet commerce, which is mostly serviced by vehicles). In 2018, the import of goods from Europe to Russia by road decreased: the volume of road transport was 4.2% less than in 2017. Another trend is the stable growth of the groupage cargo segment, also due to goods from China.
So, air transportation is considered the most expensive, and sea transportation is considered the most affordable. The type of vessel, the distance between the points of departure and arrival, and the timing are also important. Affects the cost of transportation and the number of transit countries to be overcome on the way to the final point, transit payments, payment terms, and so on. The main groups of parameters can be distinguished:
when organizing transportation: cargo dimensions, its properties, value, delivery distance, forwarding and insurance services, and others;
when preparing documents: the number of customs codes, the need to issue certificates, etc.
during storage in a warehouse: cargo volume, storage conditions, terms and so on.
Taking into account all the factors for the international transportation of goods, for example, from Southeast Asia, it is advisable to choose a multimodal delivery method. In this case, the container will travel most of the way by sea, and then from the port to its destination – by rail or road. Let’s say there is a cargo weighing 20 tons that needs to be transported from Asia to Moscow. It will be delivered to the port of Kotka (Finland) by sea transport, then by road. Shelf life in the port is seven days.
All other things being equal, the cost of sea or combined transport is lower than land. The exact cost of delivery is calculated upon receipt of the order. In order for transportation to become possible, it is required to draw up a package of documents, including a permit for crossing the border by a specific vehicle with a specific cargo. In their actions, the customs authorities strictly adhere to the legislation.
A reliable international carrier is able to organize the delivery of goods even from countries with poorly developed transport infrastructure. For this, multimodal transportation schemes are often used. International trade in conditions of economic instability is actively developing new directions.